Military Knowledge: Kalibr Cruise Missile

Tuesday, 29 March 2022 - 23:28
https://english.iswnews.com/?p=23326

The 3M-54 and 3M-14 Kaliber cruise missiles are a family of Russian-made sea, land and air-launched strategic and tactical cruise missiles designed to strike a variety of targets on land and sea with high precision.

There are different types of Kalibr cruise missiles, each of which has different names depending on its function and model. These missiles are produced in two versions: “domestic” for use in the Russian army and “export” for sale to other countries.

Some versions have secondary rocket propulsion to achieve ultrasonic speeds in the final phase of target hunting. This feature reduces the reaction time of air defense systems.

The components of the submarine-launched version and the one that launch from a surface ships is designed to be as common as possible between the parts of these missiles; Of course, there are some major differences between some of the main components. For example, in the surface ship version, the rocket booster needs to control the thrust vector due to its vertical launch, but the submarine-launched version does not require this system. The fact that the Kalibr missile can be fired from vertical tubes means that it can be used on a wide range of small and large warships. Therefore, the navy of any country that has such a weapon will benefit from very precise and strategic long-range firepower.

In the air-launched version, in order to reduce the effects of the environment on the missile, the missile is placed inside a tube and after being released from the warplane, it will release from the tube and launch.

The range of all Kalibr missiles in the service of the Russian army is not exactly known; But given past operations and operational use of the missile, conservative estimates put the maximum range of 2,500 km for the longest-range version of the missile.
Thus, the Kalibr cruise missile can hit targets with very high accuracy with a circular error probability (CEP) of 3 meter at 2500 km range with conventional or thermonuclear warheads. The flight ceiling of this missile is 1000 meters, but after firing it flies towards the target with a flight altitude between 50 to 150 from the ground level or with a flight altitude of 20 from the sea level.
Kalibr cruise missile navigation system is a combination of inertial navigation system (INS) and satellite guidance.

Kalibr cruise missile variants

Versions used in the Russian army:
Domestic versions used in the Russian Navy are divided into two general categories, 3M-54 and 3M-14 with the suffixes K and T. K means the ability to fire from submarines and T means the ability to fire from surface ships.
– The 3M54 missile has two general versions, the 3M54K and the 3M54T.
3M54K missile: A submarine-launched anti-shipping variant and its length is 8.22 meters and it has a warhead of 200 kg. Its range is between 375 and 500 km.
3M54T missile: An anti-shipping variant that launches vertically (VLS) from surface ships and its length is 8.9 meters and it has a warhead of 200 kg. Its range is between 375 and 500 km.

– The 3M14 missile has two general versions, the 3M14K and the 3M14T.
3M14K missile: A submarine-launched land attack variant with a length of 6.2 meters and a warhead of 450 kg. Its range is 2500 km.
3M14T Missile: A land attack variant that launches vertically (VLS) from surface ships with a length of 8.9 meters and a warhead of 450 kg. Its range is 2500 km.

The Russian military also has other types of air-launched and land-launched cruise missile versions, but detailed specifications are not available. It is worth noting that most of the Russian army’s Kalibr cruise missiles are of the sea-launched type, and so far the Russian army has used more Kalibr sea-launched versions.

A new version of the Kalibr-M missile is also being designed, which has a larger warhead and a range of about 4,500 kilometers. The missile is expected to join the Russian Navy between 2022 and 2025.

Export variants:
Export and attenuated versions (in terms of range and accuracy) of Kalibr cruise missiles fall into four main categories: Club-S, Club-N, Club-T, and Club-A.
The Club-S versions are submarine-launched, the Club-N versions are surface ship-launched, the Club-T versions are land-launched, and the Club-A versions are air-launched.

The Club-S version has four types: 3M-54E Club-S, 3M-54E1, 3M-14E, 91RE1.
– 3M-54E Club-S: It is the submarine-launched anti-shipping variant and its length is 8.2 meters and it has a warhead of 200 kg. Its range is 220 km.
-3M-54E1: It is the submarine-launched anti-shipping variant and its length is 6.2 meters with a warhead of 200 kg. Its range is 300 km.
– 3M-14E: It is the land attack variant fired from a submarine and its length is 6.2 meters and it has a warhead of 450 kg. Its range is 300 km.
– 91RE1: It is the submarine-launched anti-submarine variant and its length is 7.65 meters and it has a warhead of 76 kg. Its range is 50 km.

The Club-N version has four types: 3M-54TE Club-N, 3M-54TE1, 3M-54TE, 91RTE2.
– 3M-54TE Club-N: It is the surface vessel with VLS launched anti-shipping variant with a length of 8.9 meters and a warhead of 200 kg. Its range is 220 km.
– 3M-54TE1: It is the surface vessel with VLS launched anti-shipping variant with and its length is 6.2 meters and it has a warhead of 200 kg. Its range is 300 km.
– 3M-14TE: It is the surface vessel with VLS launched land attack variant with a length of 8.9 meters and a warhead of 450 kg. Its range is 300 km.
– 91RTE2: It is the surface vessel with VLS launched anti-submarine variant and its length is 8.9 meters and has a warhead of 76 kg. Its range is 40 km.

The Club-T version has two types, the land-based 3M-54E2 for targeting warships and the Land-based land-attack 3M-14E1. These missiles are used as mobile missile systems for coastal defense. These missiles have a warhead of 450 kg and probably have a range of about 300 km.

The Club-A version has three types: 3M-54AE, 3M-54AE1 and 3M-14AE.
– Versions 3M-54AE1 and 3M-54AE are anti-shipping missiles fired from warplanes. The 3M-54AE missile weighs 1950 kg and has a warhead of 200 kg and a range of 300 km.
– The 3M-14AE is a air-launched land-attack variant fired from warplanes. It is 6.2 meters long, weighs 1400 kg and has a warhead of 450 kg. Its range is 300 km.

Kalibr cruise missile specifications (3M14T variant):
Length: 8.9 m
Diameter: 0.533 m
Wingspan: 3.080 m
Weight: 2300 kg
Warhead: 450 kg HE
Range: 2500 km
Speed: Mach 2.9
Flight ceiling: 1000 m
Flight altitude: 50 – 150 m
Guidance: Inertial + satellite
Accuracy: 3 m CEP
Origin: Russia

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